第二章 工作相关民族文化价值观实证研究(二) 

4.维吾尔族不同教育程度对工作相关文化价值观的影响

为了检验教育程度是否会影响工作相关文化价值观,本文将教育程度作如下区分:初中及其以下,中专或高中,大专或大学,硕士及其以上。调查对象中没有硕士及其以上,所以,将前三个组分别用123标识。教育程度不同的各组的工作相关文化价值观如表7所示,各组之间的方差分析如表8所示。结果显示,不同教育程度的调查对象,在不确定性回避指数(PSUA 纵情指数(PSEL方面具有显著差异,文化程度较低的,不确定性回避程度较低,文化程度较低的,纵情指数较高。其他各维度之间没有显著差异。

7 不同教育程度的工作相关文化价值观(维吾尔族)

 

 

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

Minimum

Maximum

PSTP

1

68

59.6405

15.61770

1.89392

15.28

100.00

 

2

124

57.6725

17.01354

1.52786

12.50

100.00

 

3

138

55.0725

13.19714

1.12342

15.28

80.56

 

Total

330

56.9907

15.28346

.84133

12.50

100.00

PSIDV

1

68

49.4748

10.12533

1.22788

28.57

71.43

 

2

124

50.8065

13.51614

1.21378

7.14

100.00

 

3

138

50.5176

12.16347

1.03542

14.29

85.71

 

Total

330

50.4113

12.28945

.67651

7.14

100.00

PSMA

1

68

48.6425

10.99494

1.33333

23.08

69.23

 

2

124

48.5112

13.01950

1.16919

15.38

92.31

 

3

138

49.4983

10.34775

.88086

23.08

69.23

 

Total

330

48.9510

11.52375

.63436

15.38

92.31

PSUA

1

68

35.2376

20.87968

2.53203

.00

76.92

 

2

124

46.6294

16.15941

1.45116

2.56

100.00

 

3

138

44.1379

15.15748

1.29029

3.85

89.74

 

Total

330

43.2401

17.31999

.95343

.00

100.00

PSLD

1

68

51.6834

12.20392

1.47994

18.42

90.79

 

2

124

49.2254

13.69056

1.22945

6.58

90.79

 

3

138

48.2456

13.12648

1.11740

6.58

85.53

 

Total

330

49.3222

13.18315

.72571

6.58

90.79

PSEL

1

68

59.7339

12.68912

1.53878

35.24

99.05

 

2

124

57.6190

12.80722

1.15012

29.52

92.38

 

3

138

54.3616

13.84875

1.17888

15.24

91.43

 

Total

330

56.6926

13.36001

.73544

15.24

99.05

PSPDI

1

68

48.5081

19.38994

2.35138

2.90

76.81

 

2

124

48.9364

15.66281

1.40656

2.90

89.86

 

3

138

49.6744

14.96303

1.27374

10.14

89.86

 

Total

330

49.1568

16.17811

.89058

2.90

89.86

 

8 不同教育程度的工作相关文化价值观(维吾尔族)ANOVA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

PSTP

Between Groups

1042.895

2

521.448

2.249

.107

Within Groups

75806.320

327

231.824

 

 

Total

76849.216

329

 

 

 

PSIDV

Between Groups

80.561

2

40.280

.266

.767

Within Groups

49608.524

327

151.708

 

 

Total

49689.085

329

 

 

 

PSMA

Between Groups

71.799

2

35.899

.269

.764

Within Groups

43618.357

327

133.389

 

 

Total

43690.156

329

 

 

 

PSUA

Between Groups

5890.464

2

2945.232

10.378

.000

Within Groups

92803.577

327

283.803

 

 

Total

98694.041

329

 

 

 

PSLD

Between Groups

540.239

2

270.120

1.560

.212

Within Groups

56638.473

327

173.206

 

 

Total

57178.712

329

 

 

 

PSEL

Between Groups

1485.207

2

742.603

4.242

.015

Within Groups

57237.927

327

175.040

 

 

Total

58723.133

329

 

 

 

PSPDI

Between Groups

71.615

2

35.807

.136

.873

Within Groups

86038.007

327

263.113

 

 

Total

86109.622

329

 

 

 

 

5.维吾尔族不同岗位对工作相关文化价值观的影响

为了检验不同岗位是否会影响工作相关文化价值观,本文将岗位将如下区分:公司副总经理及其以上,有一个或多个下级的管理人员,没有下级的员工。各类型岗位的工作相关文化价值观各维度的描述性结果如表9所示,各类岗位之间的方差分析如表10所示。结果显示,不同岗位之间的工作相关文化价值观没有显著差异。

9 不同岗位的工作相关文化价值观(维吾尔族)

 

 

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

Minimum

Maximum

PSTP

1

33

56.0185

15.65070

2.72444

31.94

100.00

 

2

129

58.1395

14.92424

1.31401

15.28

100.00

 

3

168

56.2996

15.51887

1.19731

12.50

100.00

 

Total

330

56.9907

15.28346

.84133

12.50

100.00

PSIDV

1

33

50.2165

16.60665

2.89085

14.29

85.71

 

2

129

49.2248

11.01658

.96996

21.43

85.71

 

3

168

51.3605

12.23403

.94388

7.14

100.00

 

Total

330

50.4113

12.28945

.67651

7.14

100.00

PSMA

1

33

48.4848

11.93003

2.07675

23.08

69.23

 

2

129

50.0894

11.97555

1.05439

23.08

92.31

 

3

168

48.1685

11.07988

.85483

15.38

69.23

 

Total

330

48.9510

11.52375

.63436

15.38

92.31

PSUA

1

33

44.4444

15.55286

2.70740

12.82

89.74

 

2

129

41.7015

19.36590

1.70507

.00

87.18

 

3

168

44.1850

15.94253

1.22999

6.41

100.00

 

Total

330

43.2401

17.31999

.95343

.00

100.00

PSLD

1

33

49.1228

14.75015

2.56767

6.58

72.37

 

2

129

50.6630

13.26450

1.16787

17.11

85.53

 

3

168

48.3318

12.78504

.98639

6.58

90.79

 

Total

330

49.3222

13.18315

.72571

6.58

90.79

PSEL

1

33

59.1919

12.43149

2.16405

29.52

85.71

 

2

129

56.1240

12.73041

1.12085

15.24

92.38

 

3

168

56.6383

14.01141

1.08100

29.52

99.05

 

Total

330

56.6926

13.36001

.73544

15.24

99.05

PSPDI

1

33

51.2516

16.18644

2.81770

13.04

78.26

 

2

129

48.7249

15.81512

1.39244

10.14

82.61

 

3

168

49.0769

16.51357

1.27405

2.90

89.86

 

Total

330

49.1568

16.17811

.89058

2.90

89.86

 

10 不同岗位的工作相关文化价值观(维吾尔族)ANOVA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

PSTP

Between Groups

281.686

2

140.843

.602

.549

Within Groups

76567.530

327

234.151

 

 

Total

76849.216

329

 

 

 

PSIDV

Between Groups

334.234

2

167.117

1.107

.332

Within Groups

49354.851

327

150.932

 

 

Total

49689.085

329

 

 

 

PSMA

Between Groups

277.230

2

138.615

1.044

.353

Within Groups

43412.926

327

132.761

 

 

Total

43690.156

329

 

 

 

PSUA

Between Groups

503.255

2

251.628

.838

.434

Within Groups

98190.786

327

300.278

 

 

Total

98694.041

329

 

 

 

PSLD

Between Groups

398.020

2

199.010

1.146

.319

Within Groups

56780.692

327

173.641

 

 

Total

57178.712

329

 

 

 

PSEL

Between Groups

248.335

2

124.167

.694

.500

Within Groups

58474.799

327

178.822

 

 

Total

58723.133

329

 

 

 

PSPDI

Between Groups

169.955

2

84.978

.323

.724

Within Groups

85939.666

327

262.812

 

 

Total

86109.622

329

 

 

 

 

(二)汉族工作相关文化价值观

1.汉族总体情况

有效问卷中,汉族有530份。以全部汉族样本为对象,计算汉民族的工作相关文化价值观如表11所示。

11 汉族工作相关文化价值观

指标

平均

中位数

标准差

缅怀主义指数

47.4397

48.6111

12.53132

个人主义指数

45.9030

50.0000

11.49333

雄心主义指数

54.9927

53.8462

12.46565

不确定性回避指数

37.7891

37.1795

13.96142

长期导向指数

47.7532

48.6842

14.38394

纵情指数

56.6577

57.1429

10.74967

权力距离指数

50.9653

52.1739

14.51101

 

2.汉族不同年龄对工作相关文化价值观的影响

为了检验年龄对文化价值观的影响,本文将调查对象分为如下八个年龄段,分别计算每个年龄段的各个维度的文化价值观。第一组:20岁以下,第二组:20-24岁,第三组:25-29岁,第四组:30-34岁,第五组:35-39岁,第六组:40-49岁,第七组:50-59岁,第八组:60岁以上。根据这个分类方法,第一组只有4位,第八组只有1位,所以,这两个年龄段不进行分析。一般来说,这两年龄段也不是工作年龄,可以不考虑其工作相关文化价值观。

第二组至第七组的工作相关价值观描述性结果如表12所示,各组之间的方差分析如表13所示。

 

12 不同年龄段的工作相关文化价值观(汉族)

 

 

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

Minimum

Maximum

PSTP

2

54

47.8909

13.20304

1.79671

25.00

76.39

 

3

82

47.3408

11.04921

1.22018

22.22

69.44

 

4

119

46.5803

13.44244

1.23227

15.28

80.56

 

5

159

47.4668

13.04816

1.03479

22.22

75.00

 

6

97

47.5372

12.31294

1.25019

19.44

80.56

 

7

14

50.6944

6.01098

1.60650

43.06

63.89

 

Total

530

47.4397

12.53132

.54433

15.28

80.56

PSIDV

2

54

42.5926

10.65464

1.44991

14.29

71.43

 

3

82

47.3868

12.92029

1.42681

21.43

78.57

 

4

119

47.1789

10.89312

.99857

14.29

78.57

 

5

159

45.4627

10.85416

.86079

14.29

78.57

 

6

97

45.4345

12.33676

1.25261

.00

71.43

 

7

14

48.9796

10.04587

2.68487

28.57

64.29

 

Total

530

45.9030

11.49333

.49924

.00

78.57

PSMA

2

54

55.8405

13.79163

1.87680

23.08

84.62

 

3

82

56.5666

11.67985

1.28982

23.08

84.62

 

4

119

56.8843

12.43652

1.14005

30.77

92.31

 

5

159

53.7978

11.30059

.89620

.00

92.31

 

6

97

54.1634

12.94416

1.31428

.00

84.62

 

7

14

41.7582

11.96044

3.19656

15.38

61.54

 

Total

530

54.9927

12.46565

.54147

.00

92.31

PSUA

2

54

32.9535

13.15394

1.79002

2.56

56.41

 

3

82

37.6485

14.41003

1.59132

3.85

70.51

 

4

119

37.4811

11.63788

1.06684

10.26

66.67

 

5

159

39.0502

14.10164

1.11833

3.85

87.18

 

6

97

39.7568

15.62479

1.58646

2.56

87.18

 

7

14

36.1722

11.48000

3.06816

16.67

56.41

 

Total

530

37.7891

13.96142

.60645

2.56

87.18

PSLD

2

54

47.6608

13.66612

1.85972

14.47

80.26

 

3

82

48.3151

13.19727

1.45739

13.16

80.26

 

4

119

48.3636

12.95332

1.18743

7.89

86.84

 

5

159

48.5601

14.45231

1.14614

.00

86.84

 

6

97

45.9848

16.23256

1.64817

6.58

97.37

 

7

14

41.4474

16.94294

4.52819

6.58

59.21

 

Total

530

47.7532

14.38394

.62480

.00

97.37

PSEL

2

54

57.1076

10.28905

1.40016

29.52

79.05

 

3

82

54.2276

11.35618

1.25408

20.95

86.67

 

4

119

55.8543

10.19777

.93483

34.29

92.38

 

5

159

57.2986

10.64895

.84452

21.90

99.05

 

6

97

58.6745

10.82706

1.09932

20.95

84.76

 

7

14

54.2857

10.55911

2.82204

29.52

72.38

 

Total

530

56.6577

10.74967

.46694

20.95

99.05

PSPDI

2

54

47.0746

14.95500

2.03512

13.04

89.86

 

3

82

49.7172

13.75976

1.51951

7.25

76.81

 

4

119

53.5988

14.30607

1.31144

20.29

100.00

 

5

159

50.7976

14.13407

1.12090

17.39

86.96

 

6

97

51.7257

14.79510

1.50221

7.25

89.86

 

7

14

49.8965

19.50807

5.21375

24.64

92.75

 

Total

530

50.9653

14.51101

.63032

7.25

100.00

 

13 不同年龄段的工作相关文化价值观(汉族)ANOVA

 

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

PSTP

Between Groups

391.510

7

55.930

.353

.929

 

Within Groups

82679.482

522

158.390

 

 

 

Total

83070.991

529

 

 

 

PSIDV

Between Groups

1342.587

7

191.798

1.461

.179

 

Within Groups

68536.504

522

131.296

 

 

 

Total

69879.091

529

 

 

 

PSMA

Between Groups

4225.796

7

603.685

4.041

.000

 

Within Groups

77976.839

522

149.381

 

 

 

Total

82202.635

529

 

 

 

PSUA

Between Groups

3005.678

7

429.383

2.239

.030

 

Within Groups

100107.703

522

191.777

 

 

 

Total

103113.381

529

 

 

 

PSLD

Between Groups

1203.736

7

171.962

.829

.563

 

Within Groups

108245.139

522

207.366

 

 

 

Total

109448.874

529

 

 

 

PSEL

Between Groups

1728.611

7

246.944

2.170

.035

 

Within Groups

59400.145

522

113.793

 

 

 

Total

61128.755

529

 

 

 

PSPDI

Between Groups

2142.544

7

306.078

1.462

.178

 

Within Groups

109248.737

522

209.289

 

 

 

Total

111391.281

529

 

 

 

 

13的结果显示,汉族不同年龄在权力距离指数(PSPDI)、个人主义指数(PSIDV)、

缅怀主义指数(PSTP长期导向指数(PSLD)这四个维度没有显著差别,但是,在雄心主义指数(PSMA不确定性回避指数(PSUA纵情指数(PSEL)这三个维度有显著差异。越是年轻,越是具有雄心主义;越是年长,越是具有不确定性回避;年轻和年长的纵情指数高于中年的纵情指数。

3.汉族不同性别对工作相关文化价值观的影响

为了检验性别是否会影响工作相关文化价值观,本文分别检验女性(用1表示)和男性(用2表示)的工作相关文化价值观各维度,描述性结果如表14所示,两组之间的方差分析如表15所示。结果显示,女性和男性之间工作相关文化价值观各维度之间均没有显著差异。

14 不同性别的工作相关文化价值观(汉族)

 

 

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

Minimum

Maximum

PSTP

1

314

47.3416

12.41135

.70041

15.28

76.39

 

2

216

47.5823

12.73131

.86626

22.22

80.56

 

Total

530

47.4397

12.53132

.54433

15.28

80.56

PSIDV

1

314

45.4277

11.67588

.65891

.00

78.57

 

2

216

46.5939

11.21355

.76299

14.29

71.43

 

Total

530

45.9030

11.49333

.49924

.00

78.57

PSMA

1

314

55.6590

11.92766

.67312

23.08

92.31

 

2

216

54.0242

13.17687

.89657

.00

92.31

 

Total

530

54.9927

12.46565

.54147

.00

92.31

PSUA

1

314

38.7188

13.29632

.75035

2.56

87.18

 

2

216

36.4376

14.80282

1.00720

2.56

87.18

 

Total

530

37.7891

13.96142

.60645

2.56

87.18

PSLD

1

314

48.4705

13.47703

.76055

6.58

96.05

 

2

216

46.7105

15.58207

1.06023

.00

97.37

 

Total

530

47.7532

14.38394

.62480

.00

97.37

PSEL

1

314

56.9093

10.52794

.59413

20.95

99.05

 

2

216

56.2919

11.07854

.75380

20.95

92.38

 

Total

530

56.6577

10.74967

.46694

20.95

99.05

PSPDI

1

314

51.6339

14.67163

.82797

7.25

100.00

 

2

216

49.9933

14.25213

.96973

13.04

86.96

 

Total

530

50.9653

14.51101

.63032

7.25

100.00

 

15 不同性别的工作相关文化价值观(汉族)ANOVA

 

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

PSTP

Between Groups

7.411

1

7.411

.047

.828

 

Within Groups

83063.580

528

157.317

 

 

 

Total

83070.991

529