第二章 工作相关民族文化价值观实证研究(三)  

4.汉族不同教育程度对工作相关文化价值观的影响

为了检验教育程度是否会影响工作相关文化价值观,本文将教育程度作如下区分:初中及其以下,中专或高中,大专或大学,硕士及其以上。调查对象中,初中及其以下12位,硕士及其以上只有3位,所以,将前三个组分别用123标识,不考虑硕士及其以上。教育程度不同的各组的工作相关文化价值观如表16所示,各组之间的方差分析如表17所示。

16 不同教育程度的工作相关文化价值观(汉族)

 

 

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

Minimum

Maximum

PSTP

1

12

41.4352

13.38523

3.86398

22.22

69.44

 

2

95

47.8801

13.54304

1.38949

15.28

80.56

 

3

420

47.4669

12.28976

.59968

19.44

80.56

 

Total

530

47.4397

12.53132

.54433

15.28

80.56

PSIDV

1

12

51.1905

7.96172

2.29835

35.71

64.29

 

2

95

46.2406

11.21389

1.15052

21.43

71.43

 

3

420

45.7313

11.63112

.56754

.00

78.57

 

Total

530

45.9030

11.49333

.49924

.00

78.57

PSMA

1

12

43.5897

12.84380

3.70769

30.77

69.23

 

2

95

53.3603

12.93076

1.32667

.00

84.62

 

3

420

55.6410

12.20684

.59563

.00

92.31

 

Total

530

54.9927

12.46565

.54147

.00

92.31

PSUA

1

12

30.7692

10.90600

3.14829

16.67

43.59

 

2

95

36.4912

13.38215

1.37298

3.85

64.10

 

3

420

38.2204

14.13578

.68976

2.56

87.18

 

4

3

46.5812

9.62250

5.55556

37.18

56.41

 

Total

530

37.7891

13.96142

.60645

2.56

87.18

PSLD

1

12

43.8596

18.19178

5.25152

.00

59.21

 

2

95

49.4737

17.95360

1.84200

6.58

97.37

 

3

420

47.4687

13.24078

.64608

11.84

93.42

 

Total

530

47.7532

14.38394

.62480

.00

97.37

PSEL

1

12

67.5397

18.53625

5.35095

38.10

99.05

 

2

95

56.3409

10.66724

1.09444

29.52

80.00

 

3

420

56.4308

10.35839

.50544

20.95

84.76

 

Total

530

56.6577

10.74967

.46694

20.95

99.05

PSPDI

1

12

38.1643

15.83185

4.57026

7.25

59.42

 

2

95

50.2517

15.45010

1.58515

17.39

92.75

 

3

420

51.4631

14.12259

.68911

7.25

100.00

 

Total

530

50.9653

14.51101

.63032

7.25

100.00

 

17 不同教育程度的工作相关文化价值观(汉族)ANOVA

 

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

PSTP

Between Groups

569.102

3

189.701

1.209

.306

 

Within Groups

82501.889

526

156.848

 

 

 

Total

83070.991

529

 

 

 

PSIDV

Between Groups

541.583

3

180.528

1.369

.251

 

Within Groups

69337.508

526

131.820

 

 

 

Total

69879.091

529

 

 

 

PSMA

Between Groups

2118.549

3

706.183

4.638

.003

 

Within Groups

80084.086

526

152.251

 

 

 

Total

82202.635

529

 

 

 

PSUA

Between Groups

1061.395

3

353.798

1.824

.142

 

Within Groups

102051.986

526

194.015

 

 

 

Total

103113.381

529

 

 

 

PSLD

Between Groups

499.725

3

166.575

.804

.492

 

Within Groups

108949.149

526

207.128

 

 

 

Total

109448.874

529

 

 

 

PSEL

Between Groups

1461.216

3

487.072

4.294

.005

 

Within Groups

59667.540

526

113.436

 

 

 

Total

61128.755

529

 

 

 

PSPDI

Between Groups

2169.452

3

723.151

3.483

.016

 

Within Groups

109221.829

526

207.646

 

 

 

Total

111391.281

529

 

 

 

17显示,不同教育程度的调查对象,在个人主义指数(PSIDV不确定性回避指数(PSUA长期导向指数(PSLD缅怀主义指数(PSTP这四个维度没有显著差异。但是,在雄心主义指数(PSMA纵情指数(PSEL权力距离指数(PSPDI)这三个维度有显著差异。教育程度越高,越是具有雄心主义;教育程度较低的具有较高的纵情指数;教育程度越高,权力距离指数越大。

5.汉族不同岗位对工作相关文化价值观的影响

为了检验不同岗位是否会影响工作相关文化价值观,本文将岗位将如下区分:公司副总经理及其以上,有一个或多个下级的管理人员,没有下级的员工。各类型岗位的工作相关文化价值观各维度的描述性结果如表18所示,各类岗位之间的方差分析如表19所示。结果显示,不同岗位之间的工作相关文化价值观没有显著差异。

 

18 不同岗位的工作相关文化价值观(汉族)

 

 

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

Minimum

Maximum

PSTP

1

42

49.2394

10.88093

1.67896

25.00

73.61

 

2

147

47.8836

12.61713

1.04064

22.22

80.56

 

3

341

47.0267

12.68993

.68720

15.28

80.56

 

Total

530

47.4397

12.53132

.54433

15.28

80.56

PSIDV

1

42

46.7687

13.68078

2.11099

.00

71.43

 

2

147

45.1409

11.61379

.95789

21.43

78.57

 

3

341

46.1248

11.16445

.60459

14.29

78.57

 

Total

530

45.9030

11.49333

.49924

.00

78.57

PSMA

1

42

56.2271

8.40731

1.29728

38.46

76.92

 

2

147

56.2533

12.46874

1.02840

15.38

92.31

 

3

341

54.2973

12.85022

.69588

.00

92.31

 

Total

530

54.9927

12.46565

.54147

.00

92.31

PSUA

1

42

39.0415

14.75196

2.27628

2.56

70.51

 

2

147

38.6360

14.75228

1.21675

3.85

87.18

 

3

341

37.2697

13.52054

.73218

2.56

87.18

 

Total

530

37.7891

13.96142

.60645

2.56

87.18

PSLD

1

42

43.5150

15.76644

2.43281

.00

69.74

 

2

147

48.5410

14.55467

1.20045

6.58

86.84

 

3

341

47.9356

14.08709

.76286

6.58

97.37

 

Total

530

47.7532

14.38394

.62480

.00

97.37

PSEL

1

42

55.8503

11.13208

1.71772

20.95

80.00

 

2

147

55.2705

10.70869

.88324

20.95

92.38

 

3

341

57.3551

10.68659

.57871

20.95

99.05

 

Total

530

56.6577

10.74967

.46694

20.95

99.05

PSPDI

1

42

52.0704

12.55882

1.93787

17.39

89.86

 

2

147

50.3993

14.35290

1.18381

13.04

86.96

 

3

341

51.0731

14.82698

.80293

7.25

100.00

 

Total

530

50.9653

14.51101

.63032

7.25

100.00

 

19 不同岗位的工作相关文化价值观(汉族)ANOVA

 

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

PSTP

Between Groups

223.162

2

111.581

.710

.492

 

Within Groups

82847.830

527

157.207

 

 

 

Total

83070.991

529

 

 

 

PSIDV

Between Groups

133.633

2

66.816

.505

.604

 

Within Groups

69745.458

527

132.344

 

 

 

Total

69879.091

529

 

 

 

PSMA

Between Groups

462.480

2

231.240

1.491

.226

 

Within Groups

81740.155

527

155.105

 

 

 

Total

82202.635

529

 

 

 

PSUA

Between Groups

263.292

2

131.646

.675

.510

 

Within Groups

102850.090

527

195.161

 

 

 

Total

103113.381

529

 

 

 

PSLD

Between Groups

856.986

2

428.493

2.079

.126

 

Within Groups

108591.888

527

206.057

 

 

 

Total

109448.874

529

 

 

 

PSEL

Between Groups

476.117

2

238.058

2.068

.127

 

Within Groups

60652.639

527

115.090

 

 

 

Total

61128.755

529

 

 

 

PSPDI

Between Groups

102.352

2

51.176

.242

.785

 

Within Groups

111288.929

527

211.174

 

 

 

Total

111391.281

529

 

 

 

 

(三)哈萨克族工作相关文化价值观

1.哈萨克族总体情况

有效问卷中,哈萨克族有297份。以全部哈萨克族样本为对象,计算哈萨克族的工作相关文化价值观如表20所示。

20 哈萨克族工作相关文化价值观

指标

平均

中位数

标准差

缅怀主义指数

41.3861

13.07285

13.07285

个人主义指数

54.4012

10.05228

10.05228

雄心主义指数

52.6289

10.28891

10.28891

不确定性回避指数

43.6588

15.08522

15.08522

长期导向指数

52.0689

15.38661

15.38661

纵情指数

56.2642

13.09813

13.09813

权力距离指数

44.8787

11.78772

11.78772

 

2.哈萨克族不同年龄对工作相关文化价值观的影响

为了检验年龄对文化价值观的影响,本文将调查对象分为如下八个年龄段,分别计算每个年龄段的各个维度的文化价值观。第一组:20岁以下,第二组:20-24岁,第三组:25-29岁,第四组:30-34岁,第五组:35-39岁,第六组:40-49岁,第七组:50-59岁,第八组:60岁以上。根据这个分类方法,第一组只有2位,第八组没有,所以,这两个年龄段不进行分析。一般来说,这两年龄段也不是工作年龄,可以不考虑其工作相关文化价值观。第二组至第七组的工作相关价值观描述性结果如表21所示,各组之间的方差分析如表22所示。

21 不同年龄段的工作相关文化价值观(哈萨克族)

 

 

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

Minimum

Maximum

PSTP

2

9

35.1852

16.88229

5.62743

2.78

62.50

 

3

54

44.5988

13.97423

1.90165

22.22

73.61

 

4

115

39.7222

13.56568

1.26501

2.78

76.39

 

5

58

41.2117

12.42366

1.63131

9.72

70.83

 

6

51

42.4292

11.12955

1.55845

22.22

73.61

 

7

8

46.3542

7.74858

2.73954

31.94

55.56

 

Total

297

41.3861

13.07285

.75856

2.78

76.39

PSIDV

2

9

53.9683

17.53681

5.84560

21.43

85.71

 

3

54

53.3069

9.58445

1.30428

28.57

78.57

 

4

115

55.2174

9.66322

.90110

28.57

92.86

 

5

58

54.0640

11.20330

1.47107

28.57

92.86

 

6

51

53.2213

7.86541

1.10138

42.86

78.57

 

7

8

60.7143

12.66293

4.47702

50.00

78.57

 

Total

297

54.4012

10.05228

.58329

21.43

92.86

PSMA

2

9

51.2821

7.69231

2.56410

38.46

61.54

 

3

54

53.1339

11.40646

1.55222

23.08

76.92

 

4

115

52.7759

8.57832

.79993

30.77

84.62

 

5

58

51.9894

12.42107

1.63097

15.38

100.00

 

6

51

50.8296

9.61735

1.34670

30.77

69.23

 

7

8

62.5000

11.21337

3.96452

53.85

84.62

 

Total

297

52.6289

10.28891

.59702

15.38

100.00

PSUA

2

9

33.0484

10.60656

3.53552

20.51

53.85

 

3

54

44.7531

15.40329

2.09612

16.67

74.36

 

4

115

46.3768

14.24322

1.32819

14.10

74.36

 

5

58

38.6163

13.34958

1.75289

10.26

64.10

 

6

51

43.6903

16.15149

2.26166

6.41

87.18

 

7

8

49.8397

21.45761

7.58641

6.41

80.77

 

Total

297

43.6588

15.08522

.87533

6.41

87.18

PSLD

2

9

55.1170

11.75856

3.91952

38.16

80.26

 

3

54

50.2437

15.49096

2.10805

21.05

86.84

 

4

115

53.3410

15.27049

1.42398

10.53

97.37

 

5

58

51.5880

14.12159

1.85425

21.05

80.26

 

6

51

49.4066

16.85713

2.36047

17.11

90.79

 

7

8

63.9803

16.43326

5.81004

44.74

86.84

 

Total

297

52.0689

15.38661

.89282

10.53

97.37

PSEL

2

9

63.0688

22.03264

7.34421

40.95

100.00

 

3

54

55.7672

13.44793

1.83003

30.48

92.38

 

4

115

57.3251

12.09022

1.12742

27.62

92.38

 

5

58

56.6995

13.23657

1.73805

34.29

99.05

 

6

51

53.4080

12.52928

1.75445

27.62

79.05

 

7

8

55.2381

11.93873

4.22098

37.14

72.38

 

Total

297

56.2642

13.09813

.76003

27.62

100.00

PSPDI

2

9

37.6812

14.47463

4.82488

14.49

62.32

 

3

54

45.6790

11.52475

1.56832

14.49

69.57

 

4

115

45.4694

11.16756

1.04138

7.25

72.46

 

5

58

44.9775

12.04001

1.58093

7.25

76.81

 

6

51

43.7056

13.27452

1.85880

.00

66.67

 

7

8

47.1014

5.89971

2.08586

39.13

55.07

 

Total

297

44.8787

11.78772

.68399

.00

76.81

 

22 不同年龄段的工作相关文化价值观(哈萨克族)ANOVA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

PSTP

Between Groups

1518.455

6

253.076

1.496

.179

Within Groups

49067.731

290

169.199

 

 

Total

50586.186

296

 

 

 

PSIDV

Between Groups

540.776

6

90.129

.890

.503

Within Groups

29369.552

290

101.274

 

 

Total

29910.328

296

 

 

 

PSMA

Between Groups

1159.692

6

193.282

1.858

.088

Within Groups

30175.355

290

104.053

 

 

Total

31335.047

296

 

 

 

PSUA

Between Groups

4311.813

6

718.636

3.306

.004

Within Groups

63047.059

290

217.404

 

 

Total

67358.873

296

 

 

 

PSLD

Between Groups

1982.450

6

330.408

1.407

.212

Within Groups

68094.928

290

234.810

 

 

Total

70077.378

296

 

 

 

PSEL

Between Groups

1380.428

6

230.071

1.351

.235

Within Groups

49401.630

290

170.350

 

 

Total

50782.058

296

 

 

 

PSPDI

Between Groups

701.710

6

116.952

.839

.541

Within Groups

40427.598

290

139.406

 

 

Total

41129.307

296

 

 

 

 

22的数据显示,不同年龄区间在权力距离指数(PSPDI个人主义指数(PSIDV雄心主义指数(PSMA长期导向指数(PSLD纵情指数(PSEL缅怀主义指数(PSTP方面没有显著差异。但是,在不确定性回避指数(PSUA)维度有显著差异,年龄越长,越是具有不确定性回避。