第二章 工作相关民族文化价值观实证研究(四)  

3.哈萨克族不同性别对工作相关文化价值观的影响

为了检验性别是否会影响工作相关文化价值观,本文分别检验女性(用1表示)和男性(用2表示)的工作相关文化价值观各维度,描述性结果如表23所示,两组之间的方差分析如表24所示。

23 不同性别的工作相关文化价值观(哈萨克族)

 

 

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

Minimum

Maximum

PSTP

1

137

39.6391

12.20143

1.04244

5.56

76.39

 

2

160

42.8819

13.63566

1.07799

2.78

73.61

 

Total

297

41.3861

13.07285

.75856

2.78

76.39

PSIDV

1

137

55.3180

9.68553

.82749

28.57

92.86

 

2

160

53.6161

10.32139

.81598

21.43

92.86

 

Total

297

54.4012

10.05228

.58329

21.43

92.86

PSMA

1

137

51.4879

9.30784

.79522

15.38

69.23

 

2

160

53.6058

10.99500

.86923

23.08

100.00

 

Total

297

52.6289

10.28891

.59702

15.38

100.00

PSUA

1

137

43.5242

16.52051

1.41144

10.26

87.18

 

2

160

43.7740

13.79002

1.09020

6.41

80.77

 

Total

297

43.6588

15.08522

.87533

6.41

87.18

PSLD

1

137

52.2762

13.91541

1.18887

10.53

90.79

 

2

160

51.8914

16.58438

1.31111

17.11

97.37

 

Total

297

52.0689

15.38661

.89282

10.53

97.37

PSEL

1

137

57.3166

13.43510

1.14784

27.62

99.05

 

2

160

55.3631

12.77580

1.01002

27.62

100.00

 

Total

297

56.2642

13.09813

.76003

27.62

100.00

PSPDI

1

137

45.0651

12.67949

1.08328

.00

76.81

 

2

160

44.7192

11.00481

.87001

14.49

72.46

 

Total

297

44.8787

11.78772

.68399

.00

76.81

 

24 不同性别的工作相关文化价值观(哈萨克族)ANOVA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

PSTP

Between Groups

776.137

1

776.137

4.597

.033

Within Groups

49810.049

295

168.848

 

 

Total

50586.186

296

 

 

 

PSIDV

Between Groups

213.790

1

213.790

2.124

.146

Within Groups

29696.538

295

100.666

 

 

Total

29910.328

296

 

 

 

PSMA

Between Groups

331.033

1

331.033

3.150

.077

Within Groups

31004.014

295

105.098

 

 

Total

31335.047

296

 

 

 

PSUA

Between Groups

4.605

1

4.605

.020

.887

Within Groups

67354.267

295

228.320

 

 

Total

67358.873

296

 

 

 

PSLD

Between Groups

10.927

1

10.927

.046

.830

Within Groups

70066.451

295

237.513

 

 

Total

70077.378

296

 

 

 

PSEL

Between Groups

281.666

1

281.666

1.645

.201

Within Groups

50500.392

295

171.188

 

 

Total

50782.058

296

 

 

 

PSPDI

Between Groups

8.828

1

8.828

.063

.801

Within Groups

41120.479

295

139.391

 

 

Total

41129.307

296

 

 

 

24显示,不同性别在缅怀主义指数(PSTP)方面具有显著差异,男性显著高于女性。其他各维度之间没有差异。

4.哈萨克族不同教育程度对工作相关文化价值观的影响

为了检验教育程度是否会影响工作相关文化价值观,本文将教育程度作如下区分:初中及其以下,中专或高中,大专或大学,硕士及其以上。调查对象中硕士及其以上只有2位,不考虑这个组,将前三个组分别用123标识。教育程度不同的各组的工作相关文化价值观如表25所示,各组之间的方差分析如表26所示。

25 不同教育程度的工作相关文化价值观(哈萨克族)

 

 

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

Minimum

Maximum

PSTP

1

20

41.3889

11.57300

2.58780

25.00

70.83

 

2

96

41.5943

11.19009

1.14208

22.22

73.61

 

3

179

41.1468

14.19601

1.06106

2.78

76.39

 

Total

297

41.3861

13.07285

.75856

2.78

76.39

PSIDV

1

20

48.2143

10.83887

2.42365

28.57

78.57

 

2

96

53.7202

8.35434

.85266

35.71

78.57

 

3

179

55.5068

10.56760

.78986

21.43

92.86

 

Total

297

54.4012

10.05228

.58329

21.43

92.86

PSMA

1

20

51.5385

13.69235

3.06170

23.08

76.92

 

2

96

52.7244

9.66452

.98638

30.77

76.92

 

3

179

52.6429

10.27545

.76802

15.38

100.00

 

Total

297

52.6289

10.28891

.59702

15.38

100.00

PSUA

1

20

39.9359

19.35084

4.32698

6.41

80.77

 

2

96

45.2457

15.72709

1.60514

6.41

87.18

 

3

179

43.2674

14.25486

1.06546

10.26

74.36

 

4

2

39.7436

.00000

.00000

39.74

39.74

 

Total

297

43.6588

15.08522

.87533

6.41

87.18

PSLD

1

20

52.8289

14.49114

3.24032

21.05

80.26

 

2

96

56.1404

16.75126

1.70967

21.05

97.37

 

3

179

49.7207

14.36642

1.07380

10.53

86.84

 

Total

297

52.0689

15.38661

.89282

10.53

97.37

PSEL

1

20

63.2381

16.62085

3.71653

36.19

92.38

 

2

96

57.8571

13.55984

1.38395

27.62

100.00

 

3

179

54.7858

12.10261

.90459

27.62

80.00

 

Total

297

56.2642

13.09813

.76003

27.62

100.00

PSPDI

1

20

40.6522

10.74786

2.40329

21.74

59.42

 

2

96

45.7579

11.74529

1.19875

14.49

76.81

 

3

179

44.9194

11.91890

.89086

.00

69.57

 

Total

297

44.8787

11.78772

.68399

.00

76.81

 

26 不同教育程度的工作相关文化价值观(哈萨克族)ANOVA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

PSTP

Between Groups

273.953

3

91.318

.532

.661

Within Groups

50312.233

293

171.714

 

 

Total

50586.186

296

 

 

 

PSIDV

Between Groups

1067.610

3

355.870

3.615

.014

Within Groups

28842.718

293

98.439

 

 

Total

29910.328

296

 

 

 

PSMA

Between Groups

75.967

3

25.322

.237

.870

Within Groups

31259.080

293

106.686

 

 

Total

31335.047

296

 

 

 

PSUA

Between Groups

577.034

3

192.345

.844

.471

Within Groups

66781.838

293

227.924

 

 

Total

67358.873

296

 

 

 

PSLD

Between Groups

2691.962

3

897.321

3.902

.009

Within Groups

67385.416

293

229.984

 

 

Total

70077.378

296

 

 

 

PSEL

Between Groups

1993.000

3

664.333

3.990

.008

Within Groups

48789.058

293

166.516

 

 

Total

50782.058

296

 

 

 

PSPDI

Between Groups

457.318

3

152.439

1.098

.350

Within Groups

40671.989

293

138.812

 

 

Total

41129.307

296

 

 

 

26显示,不同教育程度的调查对象在权力距离指数(PSPDI雄心主义指数(PSMA

不确定性回避指数(PSUA缅怀主义指数(PSTP这四个维度没有显著差异。但是,在

个人主义指数(PSIDV长期导向指数(PSLD纵情指数(PSEL方面具有显著差异。

教育程度越高,个人主义指数(PSIDV)越高;中等教育程度的长期导向指数最高;教育程度越高,纵情指数越低。

5.哈萨克族不同岗位对工作相关文化价值观的影响

为了检验不同岗位是否会影响工作相关文化价值观,本文将岗位将如下区分:公司副总经理及其以上,有一个或多个下级的管理人员,没有下级的员工。各类型岗位的工作相关文化价值观各维度的描述性结果如表27所示,各类岗位之间的方差分析如表28所示。

27 不同岗位的工作相关文化价值观(哈萨克族)

 

 

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

Minimum

Maximum

PSTP

1

24

47.5694

10.83016

2.21070

31.94

66.67

 

2

68

36.8056

14.88644

1.80525

2.78

73.61

 

3

205

42.1816

12.24080

.85493

2.78

76.39

 

Total

297

41.3861

13.07285

.75856

2.78

76.39

PSIDV

1

24

52.3810

6.54880

1.33677

42.86

64.29

 

2

68

54.6218

10.81261

1.31122

28.57

78.57

 

3

205

54.5645

10.14214

.70836

21.43

92.86

 

Total

297

54.4012

10.05228

.58329

21.43

92.86

PSMA

1

24

53.5256

8.63137

1.76187

38.46

84.62

 

2

68

53.3937

12.45905

1.51088

23.08

100.00

 

3

205

52.2702

9.68519

.67644

15.38

84.62

 

Total

297

52.6289

10.28891

.59702

15.38

100.00

PSUA

1

24

43.7500

14.54565

2.96912

16.67

80.77

 

2

68

41.5158

13.51184

1.63855

10.26

74.36

 

3

205

44.3590

15.63171

1.09177

6.41

87.18

 

Total

297

43.6588

15.08522

.87533

6.41

87.18

PSLD

1

24

51.0965

17.24624

3.52037

21.05

84.21

 

2

68

50.3870

15.15493

1.83781

17.11

86.84

 

3

205

52.7407

15.26576

1.06621

10.53

97.37

 

Total

297

52.0689

15.38661

.89282

10.53

97.37

PSEL

1

24

54.1270

11.79090

2.40681

27.62

77.14

 

2

68

56.6527

15.50101

1.87977

27.62

99.05

 

3

205

56.3856

12.39915

.86599

27.62

100.00

 

Total

297

56.2642

13.09813

.76003

27.62

100.00

PSPDI

1

24

44.0821

10.39758

2.12240

27.54

62.32

 

2

68

43.3717

12.30596

1.49232

.00

65.22

 

3

205

45.4719

11.76875

.82197

7.25

76.81

 

Total

297

44.8787

11.78772

.68399

.00

76.81

 

28 不同岗位的工作相关文化价值观(哈萨克族)ANOVA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

PSTP

Between Groups

2474.063

2

1237.032

7.559

.001

Within Groups

48112.123

294

163.647

 

 

Total

50586.186

296

 

 

 

PSIDV

Between Groups

106.728

2

53.364

.526

.591

Within Groups

29803.599

294

101.373

 

 

Total

29910.328

296

 

 

 

PSMA

Between Groups

85.451

2

42.726

.402

.669

Within Groups

31249.595

294

106.291

 

 

Total

31335.047

296

 

 

 

PSUA

Between Groups

412.975

2

206.488

.907

.405

Within Groups

66945.897

294

227.707

 

 

Total

67358.873

296

 

 

 

PSLD

Between Groups

307.570

2

153.785

.648

.524

Within Groups

69769.808

294

237.312

 

 

Total

70077.378

296

 

 

 

PSEL

Between Groups

122.907

2

61.454

.357

.700

Within Groups

50659.151

294

172.310

 

 

Total

50782.058

296

 

 

 

PSPDI

Between Groups

241.797

2

120.899

.869

.420

Within Groups

40887.510

294

139.073

 

 

Total

41129.307

296

 

 

 

28显示,不同岗位在缅怀主义指数(PSTP)方面具有显著差异,高职位和一般职位的缅怀主义指数显著高于中等职位。不同岗位的文化价值观的其他维度之间没有显著差异。

(四)回族工作相关文化价值观

1.回族总体情况

有效问卷中,回族有效问卷为237份。以全部回族样本为对象,计算回族的工作相关文化价值观如表29所示。

29 回族工作相关文化价值观

指标

平均

中位数

标准差

缅怀主义指数

57.0734

55.5556

14.40937

个人主义指数

44.7559

50.0000

12.09123

雄心主义指数

51.6391

53.8462

13.34687

不确定性回避指数

37.0334

37.1795

13.05626

长期导向指数

48.4344

48.6842

13.30495

纵情指数

58.0028

57.1429

11.02300

权力距离指数

51.4034

52.1739

15.97689

 

2.回族不同年龄对工作相关文化价值观的影响

为了检验年龄对文化价值观的影响,本文将调查对象分为如下八个年龄段,分别计算每个年龄段的各个维度的文化价值观。第一组:20岁以下,第二组:20-24岁,第三组:25-29岁,第四组:30-34岁,第五组:35-39岁,第六组:40-49岁,第七组:50-59岁,第八组:60岁以上。根据这个分类方法,第一组只有5位,第八组没有,所以,这两个年龄段不进行分析。一般来说,这两年龄段也不是工作年龄,可以不考虑其工作相关文化价值观。第二组至第七组的工作相关价值观描述性结果如表30所示,各组之间的方差分析如表31所示。结果显示,不同年龄段的调查对象在工作相关文化价值观方面没有显著差异。

30 不同年龄段的工作相关文化价值观(回族)

 

 

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

Minimum

Maximum

PSTP

2

28

59.6230

13.31601

2.51649

38.89

90.28

 

3

45

55.9259

12.99322

1.93691

22.22

80.56

 

4

41

57.7575

13.33975

2.08332

25.00

83.33

 

5

46

56.7331

16.24985

2.39591

.00

83.33

 

6

57

55.2144

15.73600

2.08428

22.22

100.00

 

7

15

60.2778

14.16200

3.65661

36.11

79.17

 

Total

237

57.0734

14.40937

.93599

.00

100.00

PSIDV

2

28

45.9184

13.80522

2.60894

7.14

78.57

 

3

45

45.3968

11.90909

1.77530

21.43

64.29

 

4

41

42.6829

12.11002

1.89127

14.29

64.29

 

5

46

44.5652

12.06415

1.77876

21.43

78.57

 

6

57

46.3659

12.23277

1.62027

21.43

78.57

 

7

15

40.4762

10.33924

2.66958

14.29

50.00

 

Total

237

44.7559

12.09123

.78541

7.14

78.57

PSMA

2

28

53.8462

13.88725

2.62444

23.08

92.31

 

3

45

54.3590

14.24069

2.12288

23.08

76.92

 

4

41

50.2814

11.80432

1.84352

23.08

76.92

 

5

46

53.3445

14.54117

2.14398

15.38

92.31

 

6

57

48.9879

11.41246

1.51162

23.08

69.23

 

7

15

46.1538

16.18782

4.17968

15.38

69.23

 

Total

237

51.6391

13.34687

.86697

15.38

92.31

PSUA

2

28

34.1117

11.30307

2.13608

12.82

56.41

 

3

45

35.4131

16.83901

2.51021

.00

93.59

 

4

41

40.0876

12.56484

1.96230

20.51

76.92

 

5

46

35.8974

11.30017

1.66612

.00

53.85

 

6

57

37.1570

12.31964

1.63178

10.26

64.10

 

7

15

42.9915

12.66264

3.26948

20.51

64.10

 

Total

237

37.0334

13.05626

.84810

.00

93.59

PSLD

2

28

50.2820

13.97262

2.64058

21.05

90.79

 

3

45

48.7719

12.99965

1.93787

21.05

76.32

 

4

41

49.9679

9.95787

1.55516

27.63

76.32

 

5

46

45.6522

12.51306

1.84495

11.84

80.26

 

6

57

46.4681

15.55504

2.06032

6.58

76.32

 

7

15

54.2982

12.85811

3.31995

35.53

80.26

 

Total

237

48.4344

13.30495

.86425

6.58

90.79

PSEL

2

28

59.4558

8.53580

1.61311

41.90

72.38

 

3

45

57.9894

10.32401

1.53901

36.19

80.00

 

4

41

60.2787

11.83263

1.84795

41.90

99.05

 

5

46

53.8302

11.58924

1.70874

.00

80.00

 

6

57

58.9808

11.04495

1.46294

27.62

99.05

 

7

15

59.4286

11.07035

2.85835

49.52

91.43

 

Total

237

58.0028

11.02300

.71602

.00

99.05

PSPDI

2

28

50.2588

16.71178

3.15823

2.90

84.06

 

3

45

53.1079

14.29428

2.13087

27.54

89.86

 

4

41

54.6129

16.72466

2.61195

20.29

97.10

 

5

46

49.1808

14.66692

2.16252

17.39

82.61

 

6

57

48.5380

18.54790

2.45673

2.90

97.10

 

7

15

55.3623

10.62457

2.74325

31.88

69.57

 

Total

237

51.4034

15.97689

1.03781

2.90

97.10

 

31 不同年龄段的工作相关文化价值观(回族)ANOVA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

PSTP

Between Groups

749.331

6

124.889

.595

.734

Within Groups