第二章 工作相关民族文化价值观实证研究(五) 

3.回族不同性别对工作相关文化价值观的影响

为了检验性别是否会影响工作相关文化价值观,本文分别检验女性(用1表示)和男性(用2表示)的工作相关文化价值观各维度,描述性结果如表32所示,两组之间的方差分析如表33所示。结果显示,权力距离指数(PSPDI)方面,女性显著高于男性。在其他各维度,男性和女性之间没有显著差异。

32 不同性别的工作相关文化价值观(回族)

 

 

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

Minimum

Maximum

PSTP

1

126

55.6548

15.26735

1.36012

.00

100.00

 

2

111

58.6837

13.25375

1.25799

22.22

83.33

 

Total

237

57.0734

14.40937

.93599

.00

100.00

PSIDV

1

126

45.9184

12.66293

1.12810

7.14

78.57

 

2

111

43.4363

11.31990

1.07444

14.29

64.29

 

Total

237

44.7559

12.09123

.78541

7.14

78.57

PSMA

1

126

52.5641

12.86250

1.14588

15.38

92.31

 

2

111

50.5891

13.85973

1.31551

15.38

92.31

 

Total

237

51.6391

13.34687

.86697

15.38

92.31

PSUA

1

126

35.5515

12.37632

1.10257

.00

76.92

 

2

111

38.7156

13.64901

1.29551

.00

93.59

 

Total

237

37.0334

13.05626

.84810

.00

93.59

PSLD

1

126

48.8722

12.85840

1.14552

10.53

90.79

 

2

111

47.9374

13.83613

1.31327

6.58

80.26

 

Total

237

48.4344

13.30495

.86425

6.58

90.79

PSEL

1

126

57.9970

11.35202

1.01132

.00

99.05

 

2

111

58.0094

10.68856

1.01451

27.62

99.05

 

Total

237

58.0028

11.02300

.71602

.00

99.05

PSPDI

1

126

53.6117

15.38964

1.37102

10.14

97.10

 

2

111

48.8967

16.32749

1.54974

2.90

92.75

 

Total

237

51.4034

15.97689

1.03781

2.90

97.10

 

33 不同性别的工作相关文化价值观(回族)ANOVA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

PSTP

Between Groups

541.404

1

541.404

2.626

.107

Within Groups

48459.286

235

206.210

 

 

Total

49000.690

236

 

 

 

PSIDV

Between Groups

363.559

1

363.559

2.503

.115

Within Groups

34139.154

235

145.273

 

 

Total

34502.712

236

 

 

 

PSMA

Between Groups

230.198

1

230.198

1.294

.256

Within Groups

41810.598

235

177.917

 

 

Total

42040.796

236

 

 

 

PSUA

Between Groups

590.827

1

590.827

3.503

.063

Within Groups

39639.160

235

168.677

 

 

Total

40229.987

236

 

 

 

PSLD

Between Groups

51.565

1

51.565

.290

.590

Within Groups

41725.540

235

177.555

 

 

Total

41777.105

236

 

 

 

PSEL

Between Groups

.009

1

.009

.000

.993

Within Groups

28675.517

235

122.023

 

 

Total

28675.526

236

 

 

 

PSPDI

Between Groups

1311.903

1

1311.903

5.232

.023

Within Groups

58929.669

235

250.765

 

 

Total

60241.572

236

 

 

 

4.回族不同教育程度对工作相关文化价值观的影响

为了检验教育程度是否会影响工作相关文化价值观,本文将教育程度作如下区分:初中及其以下,中专或高中,大专或大学,硕士及其以上。调查对象中,硕士及其以上具有一位,所以,将前三个组分别用123标识。教育程度不同的各组的工作相关文化价值观如表34所示,各组之间的方差分析如表35所示。结果显示,教育程度中等的调查对象,其雄心主义指数(PSMA)显著低于教育程度低和教育程度高的两组调查对象。其他各维度之间没有显著差异。

34 不同教育程度的工作相关文化价值观(回族)

 

 

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

Minimum

Maximum

PSTP

1

33

56.5236

17.60757

3.06509

22.22

83.33

 

2

49

61.7630

13.48994

1.92713

26.39

100.00

 

3

154

55.7269

13.75785

1.10864

.00

90.28

 

Total

237

57.0734

14.40937

.93599

.00

100.00

PSIDV

1

33

45.6710

15.25081

2.65483

14.29

78.57

 

2

49

44.6064

12.75510

1.82216

14.29

71.43

 

3

154

44.6197

11.20676

.90307

7.14

78.57

 

Total

237

44.7559

12.09123

.78541

7.14

78.57

PSMA

1

33

50.5828

14.52277

2.52809

23.08

84.62

 

2

49

45.8399

14.64228

2.09175

15.38

92.31

 

3

154

53.7463

12.15424

.97942

23.08

92.31

 

Total

237

51.6391

13.34687

.86697

15.38

92.31

PSUA

1

33

39.8213

12.37171

2.15364

14.10

60.26

 

2

49

38.9848

12.41318

1.77331

14.10

64.10

 

3

154

35.8392

13.34791

1.07561

.00

93.59

 

Total

237

37.0334

13.05626

.84810

.00

93.59

PSLD

1

33

51.6348

11.23744

1.95619

30.26

76.32

 

2

49

50.9130

12.13753

1.73393

25.00

80.26

 

3

154

46.9156

13.91475

1.12128

6.58

90.79

 

Total

237

48.4344

13.30495

.86425

6.58

90.79

PSEL

1

33

56.5657

13.24790

2.30616

27.62

91.43

 

2

49

58.4257

10.72143

1.53163

41.90

99.05

 

3

154

58.1323

10.66929

.85976

.00

99.05

 

Total

237

58.0028

11.02300

.71602

.00

99.05

PSPDI

1

33

49.5389

10.44116

1.81757

33.33

69.57

 

2

49

53.6232

18.00449

2.57207

2.90

97.10

 

3

154

51.0258

16.30910

1.31422

2.90

92.75

 

Total

237

51.4034

15.97689

1.03781

2.90

97.10

 

35 不同教育程度的工作相关文化价值观(回族)ANOVA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

PSTP

Between Groups

1385.278

3

461.759

2.260

.082

Within Groups

47615.412

233

204.358

 

 

Total

49000.690

236

 

 

 

PSIDV

Between Groups

35.193

3

11.731

.079

.971

Within Groups

34467.520

233

147.929

 

 

Total

34502.712

236

 

 

 

PSMA

Between Groups

2398.607

3

799.536

4.699

.003

Within Groups

39642.189

233

170.138

 

 

Total

42040.796

236

 

 

 

PSUA

Between Groups

676.408

3

225.469

1.328

.266

Within Groups

39553.579

233

169.758

 

 

Total

40229.987

236

 

 

 

PSLD

Between Groups

1040.906

3

346.969

1.985

.117

Within Groups

40736.199

233

174.833

 

 

Total

41777.105

236

 

 

 

PSEL

Between Groups

125.189

3

41.730

.341

.796

Within Groups

28550.337

233

122.534

 

 

Total

28675.526

236

 

 

 

PSPDI

Between Groups

497.276

3

165.759

.646

.586

Within Groups

59744.297

233

256.413

 

 

Total

60241.572

236

 

 

 

 

5.回族不同岗位对工作相关文化价值观的影响

为了检验不同岗位是否会影响工作相关文化价值观,本文将岗位将如下区分::公司副总经理及其以上,有一个或多个下级的管理人员,没有下级的员工。各类型岗位的工作相关文化价值观各维度的描述性结果如表36所示,各类岗位之间的方差分析如表37所示。结果显示,不同岗位之间的工作相关文化价值观没有显著差异。

 

 

36 不同岗位的工作相关文化价值观(回族)

 

 

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

Minimum

Maximum

PSTP

1

9

60.0309

13.65741

4.55247

38.89

80.56

 

2

45

57.1914

14.27890

2.12857

25.00

83.33

 

3

183

56.8989

14.53540

1.07449

.00

100.00

 

Total

237

57.0734

14.40937

.93599

.00

100.00

PSIDV

1

9

42.8571

10.71429

3.57143

21.43

50.00

 

2

45

44.9206

9.70605

1.44689

21.43

64.29

 

3

183

44.8087

12.71087

.93961

7.14

78.57

 

Total

237

44.7559

12.09123

.78541

7.14

78.57

PSMA

1

9

49.5726

16.36814

5.45605

23.08

76.92

 

2

45

54.7009

11.73747

1.74972

30.77

92.31

 

3

183

50.9878

13.52608

.99988

15.38

92.31

 

Total

237

51.6391

13.34687

.86697

15.38

92.31

PSUA

1

9

43.4473

20.56728

6.85576

20.51

93.59

 

2

45

37.8632

12.08125

1.80097

10.26

62.82

 

3

183

36.5139

12.83307

.94865

.00

76.92

 

Total

237

37.0334

13.05626

.84810

.00

93.59

PSLD

1

9

42.1053

16.81175

5.60392

10.53

59.21

 

2

45

50.6433

14.38539

2.14445

18.42

80.26

 

3

183

48.2025

12.80040

.94623

6.58

90.79

 

Total

237

48.4344

13.30495

.86425

6.58

90.79

PSEL

1

9

61.1640

17.44299

5.81433

37.14

99.05

 

2

45

58.8571

10.07414

1.50176

41.90

91.43

 

3

183

57.6373

10.90134

.80585

.00

99.05

 

Total

237

58.0028

11.02300

.71602

.00

99.05

PSPDI

1

9

56.1997

16.28062

5.42687

30.43

72.46

 

2

45

49.5652

15.57121

2.32122

17.39

82.61

 

3

183

51.6195

16.08445

1.18900

2.90

97.10

 

Total

237

51.4034

15.97689

1.03781

2.90

97.10

 

37 不同岗位的工作相关文化价值观(回族)ANOVA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

PSTP

Between Groups

84.917

2

42.459

.203

.816

Within Groups

48915.773

234

209.042

 

 

Total

49000.690

236

 

 

 

PSIDV

Between Groups

34.180

2

17.090

.116

.891

Within Groups

34468.533

234

147.301

 

 

Total

34502.712

236

 

 

 

PSMA

Between Groups

537.902

2

268.951

1.516

.222

Within Groups

41502.894

234

177.363

 

 

Total

42040.796

236

 

 

 

PSUA

Between Groups

450.612

2

225.306

1.325

.268

Within Groups

39779.375

234

169.997

 

 

Total

40229.987

236

 

 

 

PSLD

Between Groups

589.926

2

294.963

1.676

.189

Within Groups

41187.179

234

176.014

 

 

Total

41777.105

236

 

 

 

PSEL

Between Groups

147.237

2

73.619

.604

.548

Within Groups

28528.289

234

121.916

 

 

Total

28675.526

236

 

 

 

PSPDI

Between Groups

367.639

2

183.820

.718

.489

Within Groups

59873.933

234

255.872

 

 

Total

60241.572

236

 

 

 

 

(五)各民族工作相关文化价值观比较

根据表2、表11、表20和表29的数据,四个民族的工作相关文化价值观各维度的均值如表38所示。分别每个维度进行差异显著性分析如表39所示。

 

38 各民族的工作相关文化价值观(均值)

指标

汉族1

回族2

维吾尔族3

哈萨克族4

缅怀主义指数

47.4397

57.0734

56.9907

41.3861

个人主义指数

45.9030

44.7559

50.4113

54.4012

雄心主义指数

54.9927

51.6391

48.9510

52.6289

不确定性回避指数

37.7891

37.0334

43.2401

43.6588

长期导向指数

47.7532

48.4344

49.3222

52.0689

纵情指数

56.6577

58.0028

56.6926

56.2642

权力距离指数

50.9653

51.4034

49.1568

44.8787

 

39显示,缅怀主义指数(PSTP)维度,回族和维吾尔族显著高于其他各民族,回族和维吾尔族之间没有显著差异;汉族显著低于回族和维吾尔族,显著高于哈萨克族;哈萨克族显著低于其他各民族。

个人主义指数(PSIDV)方面,哈萨克族显著高于回族、汉族和维吾尔族,维吾尔族显著高于汉族和回族,汉族和回族之间没有显著差异。

雄心主义指数(PSMA),汉族显著高于其他各民族,回族和哈萨克族无显著差异,但是二者均显著高于维吾尔族。

不确定性回避指数(PSUA),维吾尔族和哈萨克族显著高于汉族和回族,维吾尔族和哈萨克族之间无显著差异,汉族与回族无显著差异。

长期导向指数(PSLD),哈萨克族显著高于其他各民族,维吾尔族显著高于汉族,汉族与回族无显著差异,回族与维吾尔族无显著差异。

纵情指数(PSEL),各民族之间无显著差异。

权力距离指数(PSPDI),哈萨克族显著低于其他各民族,汉族与回族、维吾尔族没有显著差异。

 

 

 

39 各民族的工作相关文化价值观(均值)Multiple Comparisons Scheffe

Dependent

Variable

组号(I) g

组号(J) g

差距Mean Difference (I-J)

标准误差Std. Error

显著性水平Sig.

PSTP 

1

 

 

2

-8.07857

0.956149

0.00

3

-10.0077

1.043796

0.00

4

8.293874

0.94689

0.00

2

 

 

1

8.078565

0.956149

0.00

3

-1.9291

1.061532

0.35

4

16.37244

0.966406

0.00

3

 

 

1

10.00767

1.043796

0.00

2

1.929102

1.061532

0.35

4

18.30154

1.053199

0.00

4

 

 

1

-8.29387

0.94689

0.00

2

-16.3724

0.966406

0.00

3

-18.3015

1.053199

0.00

PSIDV

1

 

 

2

0.272291

0.826038

0.99

3

-5.32033

0.901757

0.00

4

-9.06183

0.818038

0.00

2

 

 

1

-0.27229

0.826038

0.99

3

-5.59262

0.917079

0.00

4

-9.33412

0.834898

0.00

3

 

 

1

5.320331

0.901757

0.00

2

5.592622

0.917079

0.00

4

-3.7415

0.909881

0.00

4

 

 

1

9.061827

0.818038

0.00

2

9.334118

0.834898

0.00

3

3.741497

0.909881

0.00

PSMA 

1

 

 

2

3.787624

0.872361

0.00

3

6.670571

0.952327

0.00

4

3.840847

0.863913

0.00

2

 

 

1

-3.78762

0.872361

0.00

3

2.882947

0.968508

0.03

4

0.053223

0.881719

1.00

3

 

 

1

-6.67057

0.952327

0.00

2

-2.88295

0.968508

0.03

4

-2.82972

0.960906

0.03

4

 

 

1

-3.84085

0.863913

0.00

2

-0.05322

0.881719

1.00

3

2.829724

0.960906

0.03

PSUA 

1

 

 

2

-0.07902

1.084102

1.00

3

-6.43329

1.183477

0.00

4

-5.59127

1.073603

0.00

2

 

 

1

0.07902

1.084102

1.00

3

-6.35427

1.203587

0.00

4

-5.51225

1.095731

0.00

3

 

 

1

6.433294

1.183477

0.00

2

6.354273

1.203587

0.00

4

0.842027

1.194139

0.92

4

 

 

1

5.591267

1.073603

0.00

2

5.512247

1.095731

0.00

3

-0.84203

1.194139

0.92

PSLD 

1

 

 

2

-2.01394

1.022036

0.27

3

-3.6328

1.115722

0.01

4

-7.11336

1.012138

0.00

2

 

 

1

2.013941

1.022036

0.27

3

-1.61886

1.13468

0.57

4

-5.09942

1.032999

0.00

3

 

 

1

3.632804

1.115722

0.01

2

1.618862

1.13468

0.57

4

-3.48056

1.125773

0.02

4

 

 

1

7.113362

1.012138

0.00

2

5.099421

1.032999

0.00

3

3.480558

1.125773

0.02

PSEL

  

1

 

 

2

-1.70084

0.869648

0.28

3

0.745662

0.949365

0.89

4

-0.78276

0.861226

0.84

2

 

 

1

1.700839

0.869648

0.28

3

2.446501

0.965496

0.09

4

0.918077

0.878976

0.78

3

 

 

1

-0.74566

0.949365

0.89

2

-2.4465

0.965496

0.09

4

-1.52842

0.957917

0.47

4

 

 

1

0.782763

0.861226

0.84

2

-0.91808

0.878976

0.78

3

1.528424

0.957917

0.47

PSPDI

1

 

 

2

-0.43771

1.053781

0.98

3

2.691773

1.150377

0.14

4

7.108613

1.043576

0.00

2

 

 

1

0.437706

1.053781

0.98

3

3.129479

1.169924

0.07

4

7.546318

1.065085

0.00

3

 

 

1

-2.69177

1.150377

0.14

2

-3.12948

1.169924

0.07

4

4.416839

1.16074

0.00

4

 

 

1

-7.10861

1.043576

0.00

2

-7.54632

1.065085

0.00

3

-4.41684

1.16074

0.00